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A Paradigm Shift

From: Instructional Focus on 3 R's

To: Focus is 5 C's Necessary for Future Success - 5 C's are Communication, Cooperation, Commitment, Creativity, and Compassion

From: Children Adapt

To: Schools Adapt

From: Child is Passive

To: Child is Active

From: Child is Dependent

To: Child is a Partner Constructing Knowledge

From: Whole Group Instruction

To: Whole-Group, Small Groups, Cooperative and Individual

From: Mostly Individual Isolated Tasks

To: Whole Group, Small Group, Cooperative and Individual

From: Preset Material is Covered by Teacher

To: Child's Capacity to Plan and Learn is Extended

From: Separate Subjects

To: Subjects are Integrated around Themes of Inquiry

From: Workbooks

To: Concrete Materials, Quality Literature, Variety of Resources

From: Verbal Informational Emphasis

To: Constructivist, Problem-Solving, Thinking Emphasis

From: Single Correct Answers

To: Alternate Solutions Generated

From: Work and Play Separate and Divided

To: Play is Valued for Learning, Thinking, Communication, Cooperation

From: Teacher is the Sole Arbiter of What is Correct

To: Children Build and Examine Theories and Construct Knowledge

From: Grouping is by Ability or Age

To: Grouping is Flexible by Interests, Motivations, and Individual Needs

From: Assessment is for Classification and Reporting

To: Assessment is for Making Instructional Decisions

From: Child is Recipient of the Teacher's Information

To: Child is Collaborator in Constructing Own Knowledge

From: Assessment focuses on What a Child Knows

To: Assessment Focuses on How a Child Learns and What a Child Can Do

From: Periodic Tests for Assessment

To: Ongoing Observation of the Child and Child's Work for Assessment

From: Answers are Valued

To: Questions are Valued

From: Facts and Information are Valued

To: Information Acquisition, Evaluation, and Application are Valued

From Paper and Pencil Representations of Knowledge

To: Multiple Ways of Representing Knowledge