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A Paradigm Shift


From: Instructional Focus on 3 R's

To: Focus is 5 C's Necessary for Future Success - 5 C's are Communication, Cooperation, Commitment, Creativity, and Compassion


From: Children Adapt

To: Schools Adapt


From: Child is Passive

To: Child is Active


From: Child is Dependent

To: Child is a Partner Constructing Knowledge


From: Whole Group Instruction

To: Whole-Group, Small Groups, Cooperative and Individual


From: Mostly Individual Isolated Tasks

To: Whole Group, Small Group, Cooperative and Individual


From: Preset Material is Covered by Teacher

To: Child's Capacity to Plan and Learn is Extended


From: Separate Subjects

To: Subjects are Integrated around Themes of Inquiry


From: Workbooks

To: Concrete Materials, Quality Literature, Variety of Resources


From: Verbal Informational Emphasis

To: Constructivist, Problem-Solving, Thinking Emphasis


From: Single Correct Answers

To: Alternate Solutions Generated


From: Work and Play Separate and Divided

To: Play is Valued for Learning, Thinking, Communication, Cooperation


From: Teacher is the Sole Arbiter of What is Correct

To: Children Build and Examine Theories and Construct Knowledge


From: Grouping is by Ability or Age

To: Grouping is Flexible by Interests, Motivations, and Individual Needs


From: Assessment is for Classification and Reporting

To: Assessment is for Making Instructional Decisions


From: Child is Recipient of the Teacher's Information

To: Child is Collaborator in Constructing Own Knowledge


From: Assessment focuses on What a Child Knows

To: Assessment Focuses on How a Child Learns and What a Child Can Do


From: Periodic Tests for Assessment

To: Ongoing Observation of the Child and Child's Work for Assessment


From: Answers are Valued

To: Questions are Valued


From: Facts and Information are Valued

To: Information Acquisition, Evaluation, and Application are Valued


From Paper and Pencil Representations of Knowledge

To: Multiple Ways of Representing Knowledge